Tax Deducted at Source


Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) is a crucial component of the Indian tax system, designed to ensure a
regular inflow of tax revenues for the government. TDS requires individuals or entities to deduct a
specific percentage of tax at the time of making payments for various transactions and deposit it
with the government. This article will provide a comprehensive overview of TDS, including its
purpose, calculation, rates, and compliance requirements.

What is a TDS certificate?

Form 16, Form 16A, Form 16 B and Form 16 C are all TDS certificates. TDS certificates have
to be issued by a person deducting TDS to the assessee from whose income TDS was
deducted while making payment. For instance, banks issue Form 16A to the depositor when
TDS is deducted on interest from fixed deposits. Form 16 is issued by the employer to the

Certificate of
Due Date
Form 16
TDS on salary payment
31st May
From 16A
TDS on non- salary payments
15 days from due date of filing return
Form 16B
TDS on sale of property
Every transaction
15 days from due date of filing return
Form 16C
TDS on rent
Every transaction
15 days from due date of filing return
1. Purpose of TDS:

TDS serves several essential purposes:

  • Regular Revenue Collection: TDS helps the government collect taxes throughout the year instead of waiting for taxpayers to pay in a lump sum at the end of the financial year.
  • Minimizing Tax Evasion: It acts as a deterrent against tax evasion, as it compels the deductor to withhold tax before making a payment.
  • Distributing the Tax Burden: TDS ensures that the tax burden is shared proportionately among various stakeholders involved in financial transactions.
2. Applicability of TDS:

TDS is applicable to a wide range of financial transactions, including:

  • Salary Payments: Employers deduct TDS from employees’ salaries.
  • Interest Payments: TDS is deducted on interest income from savings accounts, fixed deposits, and other investments.
  • Rent Payments: TDS is deducted by individuals and entities making rent payments above a specified threshold.
  • Professional and Technical Fees: Payments to professionals and contractors are subject to TDS.
  • Commission Payments: Businesses deduct TDS on commissions paid to agents.
  • Dividend Payments: TDS is applicable to dividends from shares and mutual funds.
3. TDS Rates and Thresholds:

The TDS rates and thresholds vary depending on the nature of the transaction. Different sections of the Income Tax Act specify the applicable rates and thresholds. Some examples include:

  • Section 192: TDS on salaries has a specific tax slabs and rates for individuals based on their income.
  • Section 194A: TDS on interest income is applicable when the interest amount exceeds Rs. 10,000 in a financial year, with a standard rate of 10%.
  • Section 194I: TDS on rent is applicable when the annual rent exceeds Rs. 2.4 lakhs for land/building and Rs. 1.8 lakhs for machinery/plant, at a rate of 10%.
  • Section 194J: TDS on professional or technical fees is deducted at 10%.
4. TDS Deduction and Compliance:

To comply with TDS regulations, deductors must adhere to the following steps:

  • Obtain a TAN (Tax Deduction and Collection Account Number) from the Income Tax Department.
  • Deduct TDS at the specified rates and calculate the amount.
  • Deposit the deducted TDS to the government within the due dates.
  • File TDS returns on time, which includes quarterly statements and an annual statement.
  • Issue TDS certificates to the deductees as proof of tax deduction.
  • Non-compliance with TDS provisions can result in penalties and legal consequences.
5. TDS Refunds:

If the deducted TDS amount exceeds the actual tax liability of the deductee, they can claim a TDS refund by filing an income tax return. The excess amount is refunded after the return is processed.

When to file TDS returns?

Filing Tax Deducted at Source returns is mandatory for all the persons who have deducted TDS. TDS return is to be submitted quarterly and various details need to be furnished like TAN, amount of TDS deducted, type of payment, PAN of deductee, etc. Also, different forms are prescribed for filing returns depending upon the purpose of the deduction of TDS. Various types of return forms are as follows: Form 26QTDS on all payments except salaries Q1 – 31st July Q2 – 31st October Q3 – 31st January Q4 – 31st May

From No
Transaction Reported in The Return
Due Date
From 26Q
TDS On Salary
Q1 – 31st July Q2 – 31st October Q3 – 31st January Q4 – 31st May
From 27Q
TDS on all payments made to non-residents except salaries
Q1 – 31st July Q2 – 31st October Q3 – 31st January Q4 – 31st May
Form 26QB
TDS on sale of property
30 days from the end of the month in which TDS is deducted
Form 26QC
TDS on rent
30 days from the end of the month in which TDS is deducted


TDS is a critical element of the Indian tax system that ensures the steady collection of taxes and reduces tax evasion. Understanding the various provisions, rates, and compliance requirements is essential for both deductors and deductees. It is advisable to seek professional guidance or use tax software to simplify the TDS process and remain compliant with the law. Compliance with TDS regulations not only avoids penalties but also contributes to the nation’s revenue collection and economic stability.

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