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Welcome to Trisuka, your trusted partner in the formation of Public Limited Companies. We will guide you through the process of forming a Public Limited Company, providing insights into its definition, required documents, step-by-step procedure, eligibility criteria, and the pros and cons of opting for this versatile business structure.


Public Limited Company Registration

A Public Limited Company is a business entity formed under the Companies Act, 2013, with a minimum of seven members and the ability to offer its shares to the general public. It is a popular choice for large-scale businesses seeking access to the capital market for raising funds. A Public Limited Company has its shares listed on a recognized stock exchange, allowing trading and transferability of ownership among the general public.

To establish a Public Limited Company, certain documents need to be prepared and submitted. These include:

  • Memorandum of Association (MoA): The MoA outlines the company’s objectives, scope of operations, and the rights and duties of its shareholders.
  • Articles of Association (AoA): The AoA defines the internal regulations, governance, and management structure of the Public Limited Company.
  • Director Identification Number (DIN): All proposed directors of the Public Limited Company must obtain a unique DIN from the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA).
  • Digital Signature Certificate (DSC): Digital signatures are required for electronically signing various documents throughout the registration process.
  • Address Proof: The Public Limited Company must provide address proof documents such as utility bills or rental agreements for the registered office address.

The process of forming a Public Limited Company involves the following steps:

  • Minimum Members: Ensure the presence of at least seven individuals or entities to form a Public Limited Company. These members can be individuals or corporate bodies.
  • Name Approval: Select a unique name for the Public Limited Company and apply for its approval with the Registrar of Companies (ROC). The name should comply with the naming guidelines prescribed by the ROC.
  • Incorporation Documents: Prepare the necessary incorporation documents, including the MoA, AoA, and other prescribed forms, as per the requirements of the Companies Act, 2013.
  • Filing with ROC: Submit the incorporation documents to the ROC along with the requisite fees.
  • Capital Requirement: Ensure that the Public Limited Company has a minimum authorized share capital as per the prescribed requirements.
  • Appointment of Directors: Appoint directors for the Public Limited Company, ensuring compliance with the maximum number of directors allowed and the requirements for independent directors.
  • Compliance: Comply with post-incorporation requirements, such as conducting annual general meetings, filing annual financial statements, maintaining proper accounting records, and adhering to tax and regulatory obligations.

To register a Public Limited Company, the following eligibility criteria must be met:

  • The Public Limited Company must have a minimum of seven members, which can be individuals or corporate bodies.
  • The company should comply with the capital requirements specified by the Companies Act, 2013.
  • Access to Capital: Public Limited Companies can raise funds by issuing shares to the general public, facilitating capital expansion and growth opportunities.
  • Transferability of Ownership: The shares of a Public Limited Company are freely transferable, allowing shareholders to buy, sell, or transfer their ownership interests in the company.
  • Enhanced Credibility: Public Limited Companies enjoy a higher level of credibility and trust among customers, suppliers, and financial institutions due to their transparent operations and compliance with regulatory requirements.
  • Limited Liability: Shareholders of a Public Limited Company have limited liability, protecting theirpersonal assets and minimizing risk. They are not personally liable for the company’s debts and obligations.
  • Growth and Expansion Potential: Public Limited Companies have the potential for rapid growth and expansion. They can attract large investments, enter into mergers and acquisitions, and explore new business opportunities.
  • Compliance Requirements: Public Limited Companies have more stringent compliance obligations compared to other business structures. They need to adhere to extensive reporting and disclosure requirements, conduct regular board meetings, and comply with various legal and regulatory obligations.
  • Complex Governance Structure: Public Limited Companies require an elaborate governance structure to ensure effective decision-making, consensus-building, and shareholder engagement. Maintaining transparency and managing diverse interests can be challenging.
  • Disclosure of Information: Public Limited Companies are required to disclose certain information to regulatory authorities and the public. This includes filing financial statements, maintaining registers of members and directors, and complying with disclosure requirements.
  • Public Scrutiny: Public Limited Companies operate under public scrutiny and may face criticism or scrutiny from shareholders, media, and regulatory bodies. They need to manage public perception and maintain a positive corporate image.
  • Cost and Time-Consuming Processes: The formation and maintenance of a Public Limited Company can be costly and time-consuming due to various legal and regulatory requirements. Expenses associated with compliance, audits, and listing fees can be significant.


  1. Can a Public Limited Company convert into a Private Limited Company?
    Yes, a Public Limited Company can be converted into a Private Limited Company subject to compliance with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, and obtaining the necessary approvals from the shareholders and regulatory authorities.

  2. Can a Public Limited Company raise funds from the public through an Initial Public Offering (IPO)?
    Yes, a Public Limited Company can raise funds from the public by issuing shares through an IPO. This involves complying with the regulations set by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and other applicable laws.

  3. Are Public Limited Companies subject to audit requirements?
    Yes, Public Limited Companies are required to conduct regular audits of their financial statements by qualified auditors as per the Companies Act, 2013. This ensures transparency and accuracy in financial reporting.

  4. Is it mandatory to list a Public Limited Company’s shares on a stock exchange?
    No, it is not mandatory for a Public Limited Company to list its shares on a stock exchange. Listing is optional, and the company can choose to remain unlisted if it meets the minimum requirements specified by the stock exchange.

  5. Can foreign nationals be directors of a Public Limited Company in India?
    Yes, foreign nationals can be directors of a Public Limited Company in India, subject to compliance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, and other applicable laws. At least one director must be a resident of India.

**Please note that while these answers provide a general understanding, it is always advisable to consult with professionals or legal experts for specific guidance to your unique circumstances.