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Welcome to Trisuka, where we specialize in assisting businesses in the formation and management of Private Limited Companies. We will provide you with a comprehensive guide on what a Private Limited Company is, the necessary documents required, the step-by-step process of formation, eligibility criteria, and the pros and cons of this popular business structure.


Private Limited Company Registration

A Private Limited Company is a legal business entity that is privately held by its shareholders. It offers limited liability protection to its owners and combines the advantages of a corporate structure with the flexibility of a privately-owned business. It is governed by the Companies Act and offers significant benefits in terms of credibility, growth potential, and ease of raising funds.

To establish a Private Limited Company, certain documents must be prepared and submitted. These include:

Director Identification Number (DIN): Each director of the company must obtain a unique DIN from the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA).

Digital Signature Certificate (DSC): Digital signatures are necessary for electronically signing various documents throughout the registration process.

Memorandum of Association (MoA): It defines the company’s main objectives, scope of activities, and the relationship between the company and its shareholders.

Articles of Association (AoA): This document outlines the rules and regulations governing the internal management and operation of the company.

Identity and Address Proof: Directors and shareholders must provide identity and address proofs such as Aadhaar card, PAN card, passport, or driver’s license.

Proof of Registered Office: A document confirming the registered office address, such as a utility bill or rental agreement, is required.

The process of forming a Private Limited Company involves the following steps:

  • Name Approval: Select a unique name for the company and apply for its approval with the Registrar of Companies (ROC).
  • Obtaining Director Identification Number (DIN): Apply for DIN for all the directors of the company.
  • Digital Signature Certificate (DSC): Obtain DSC for all the directors and shareholders.
  • Filing Incorporation Documents: Prepare and submit the necessary documents, including MoA, AoA, and the application for incorporation, to the ROC.
  • Payment of Fees: Pay the requisite fees to the ROC along with the incorporation documents.
  • Certificate of Incorporation: Upon successful review and verification, the ROC issues the Certificate of Incorporation, officially establishing the Private Limited Company.

To register a Private Limited Company, the following eligibility criteria must be met:

  • Minimum of two directors and two shareholders are required. The directors and shareholders can be the same individuals.
  • At least one director must be a resident of India, i.e., someone who has lived in India for a total of 182 days or more in the previous calendar year.
  • Limited Liability: Shareholders’ liability is limited to the amount they have invested in the company. Their personal assets are protected, and they are not personally responsible for the company’s debts and liabilities.
  • Separate Legal Entity: A Private Limited Company has its own legal identity, distinct from its shareholders. It can enter into contracts, own property, and sue or be sued in its own name.
  • Credibility and Perpetual Existence: A Private Limited Company enjoys more credibility among suppliers, customers, and financial institutions. It has perpetual existence, meaning it continues to exist even if the shareholders or directors change.
  • Ease of Fundraising: Private Limited Companies have more options to raise funds compared to other business structures. They can issue shares to investors, raise capital through venture capitalists or angel investors, and borrow from financial institutions.
  • Employee Incentives: Private Limited Companies have the flexibility to offer stock options or equity-based incentives to attract and retain talented employees, which can be a valuable tool for employee motivation and retention.
  • Compliance Requirements: Private Limited Companies have more compliance obligations compared to other business structures. They are required to maintain proper accounting records, file annual financial statements, hold annual general meetings, and comply with various legal and regulatory obligations.
  • Costly and Time-Consuming Incorporation: The process of incorporating a Private Limited Company can be more complex, time-consuming, and expensive compared to other business structures. It involves drafting and filing various documents, paying registration fees, and obtaining necessary approvals.
  • Restrictions on Share Transfer: Private Limited Companies have restrictions on the transfer of shares. Shareholders may need the approval of the board of directors or other shareholders before transferring their shares.
  • Disclosure of Information: Private Limited Companies are required to disclose certain information to regulatory authorities and the public. This includes filing financial statements, maintaining registers of members and directors, and complying with disclosure requirements.
  • Exit Challenges: Exiting or winding up a Private Limited Company can be a complex process. It involves complying with legal requirements, settling liabilities, and distributing assets, which may require professional assistance and can take time.


  1. How long does it take to register a Private Limited Company?

    The registration process typically takes around 10-15 business days, depending on the efficiency of document preparation, name approval, and submission to the Registrar of Companies (ROC). However, the timeline can vary based on factors such as government processing times and the completeness of the application.

  2. What is the minimum capital requirement for a Private Limited Company?

    There is minimum capital requirement for registering a Private Limited Company in India is Rs. 100000. 

  3. Can a foreign national or an NRI (Non-Resident Indian) form a Private Limited Company in India?

    Yes, a foreign national or an NRI can form a Private Limited Company in India. However, there are certain criteria to be met. At least one director must be a resident of India, as mentioned earlier, and they can be a foreign national or an NRI. Foreign nationals and NRIs can also become shareholders in the company.

  4. What are the annual compliance requirements for a Private Limited Company?
    LLPs have specific annual compliance requirements that must be fulfilled. These include filing annual returns with the Registrar of Companies (ROC) and maintaining proper accounting records. LLPs are also required to have their accounts audited if their annual turnover exceeds a certain threshold. It is crucial to stay updated with the latest compliance obligations and meet them within the specified deadlines.

  5. Can the registered office address of a Private Limited Company be changed?
    Yes, the registered office address of a Private Limited Company can be changed. The process involves obtaining approval from the company’s directors and shareholders, updating the necessary documents, and notifying the Registrar of Companies (ROC) about the change within a specified timeframe. It is essential to follow the legal procedures and inform all relevant parties about the new registered office address.

**Please note that while these answers provide a general understanding, it is always advisable to consult with professionals or legal experts for specific guidance to your unique circumstances.